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Figure 2.1 Bandura’s Model of Observational Learning

1. Types of Learning
Learning- The changes in behavior you experience throughout life.
Behaviorism- is the focus on the behaviors when learning and not the thinking part.
Associative Learning- learning through connections or associations of everyday life
Observational learning- Is where we watch and imitate another person’s behavior.





2. Classical Conditioning
Classical conditioning- is where a neutral stimulus becomes associated with a meaningful stimulus and acquires the capacity to elicit.
Unconditioned stimulus- produces a response without prior learning of the stimulus.

Unconditioned response- is a response that is involuntary and that we didn’t learn.
Conditioned stimulus- eventually we learn the stimulus and it becomes conditioned.
Conditioned response- the response we learn to the conditioned stimulus.
Acquisition- is the learning process from an unconditioned stimulus to a conditioned stimulus.



Generalization- is the tendency to respond to a stimulus a certain way.
Discrimination- is where we learn to respond to a certain stimulus and not others.
Extinction-is where you stop the response when the stimulus is absent.
Spontaneous recovery- is where a stimulus’ response is delayed.
Renewal- is where we try to relearn a response to a certain stimulus.
Counter conditioning- is where we try to change a certain response to a stimulus.
Habituation- is where there is decreased response after a certain number of times the stimulus was presented.


3. Operant Conditioning

Operant conditioning: The reaction of an action one has alters the chance of the action’s happenings.

Operant: tells the action a person


Thorndike’s Law of Effect
Actions that have a good response are stronger than actions that do not have a good response



Shaping: applauding an almost near wanted action


Reinforcement
Refers to good actions, this action occurs repeatedly after a good reaction.

Positive Reinforcement: The number of times an action is repeated increases, knowing the reward of a good reaction

Negative Reinforcement: The number of times an action is repeated decreases, knowing the reward of a bad reaction.




Generalization: going through a reinforced action in a way not done before.

Discrimination: responding accordingly to input that signal an action that will or will not be reinforced

Extinction: reinforcement is no longer needed and the number of times behavior occurs decreases.


Punishment
A reaction that decreases an action of repeating

Positive Punishment: an action that decreases when unwanted input is presented

Negative Punishment: an action that decreases when good input is taken away.









Latent Learning- Implicit Learning- is when something new is learned and processed through the brain but has not yet been active to where it is shown or used in behavior. Example: There were 2 hungry rats put in a maze and made them find their way from a starting point to and end point. First group (reinforcer) had food at the end of the maze. The second group did not find anything. In operant view, the first group should learn the maze better than the second, which did happen. Researchers then took out rats from the second group and gave them food at the end. The rats then began to run just as well as the first group. The learning was latent


Insight Learning- is when there is a problem that needs to be solved but one is not yet sure on how to solve the problem until one gets a sudden insight, or when one finally understands and comprehends how to perform the solution to the problem.
Example: Sultan, the brightest chimp was faced with a problem by not being able to reach his food but he used the insight learning and solved the problem by stacking the boxes that were in the room to reach the bananas.







Instinctive drift- relates to animals; is the biological influence of learning which leads to the tendency of animal to go back to their instinctive, wild behavior which interferes with learning which makes the animal act strange.
Example: a raccoon was taught how to drop a coin in the slot of a piggy bank. Acting strange, instead of doing his normal task, he would drop the coin on the ground, shove it with its nose, toss it in the air, etc.




Preparedness- is based on species-specific biological predisposition to learn in certain ways but not others. Some animals learn easily in one situation but have problems learning in just a slight different situation. The difficulty results from a organisms biological predisposition.
 Example: research on conditioning humans and monkeys to associate snakes with fear.


CHAPTER 6 QUESTIONS

1. _ is the theory of learning that focuses solely on the observable behaviors, discounting the importance of such mental activities such as thinking, wishing, and hoping.
2. The difference between conditioned stimulus and unconditioned stimulus is a response has been learned.

3. The learning that takes place when a person observes and imitates another’s behavior is called_?
4. Modification of behavior brought about by reinforcement and punishment is_?
5. _ is a consequence that decreases the likelihood that a behavior will occur.
Answers:
1. Behaviorism
2. True
3. Observational learning
4. Operant conditioning

5. punishment