Thinking, Intelligence, and Language

Cassandra Britus

Intelligence

What is intelligence?

Intelligence is the all-purpose ability to do well on cognitive tasks, to solve problems, and to learn from experience.

Measuring Intelligence

Psychologist measure intelligence using test that produce a score known as the persons intelligence quotient (I Q).

IQ= (MA/CA) x 100.

Gifted- IQ of 130 or higher.

Intellectual disability-70 or below.

In the realm of testing, validity refers to the extent to which a test measures what it is intended to measure.

Reliability is the extent to which a test yields a consistent, reproducible measure of performance.

Alfred Binet

He was the first person to construct the first IQ test after being asked to create a measure to determine which children would benefit from instructions in a French school.

Cultural Bias Testing

Many early IQ test were culturally bias. Many of the tests that were given to those who lived in the majority and lived in middle to upper-class neighbourhoods.

Culture-fair tests

Intelligence tests that are intended to be culturally unbiased, they tested PIQ (performance).

A Determinant of Intelligence can be linked to genetics. For intelligence, heritability tells us how much of the differences we observe in intelligence is attributable to differences in genes. Because heritability is a proportion, the highest degree of heritability is 100 percent.

Theories of Multiple Intelligences

· Verbal: The ability to think in words and use language to express meaning. Occupations: author, journalist, speaker.

· Mathematical: The ability to carry out mathematical operations. Occupations: scientist, engineer, accountant.

· Spatial: The ability to think three-dimensionally. Occupations: architect, artist, sailor.

· Bodily-kinesthetic: The ability to manipulate objects and to be physically adept. Occupations: surgeon, craftsperson, dancer, athlete.

· Musical: The ability to be sensitive to pitch, melody, rhythm, and tone. Occupations: composer, musician.

· Interpersonal: The ability to understand and interact effectively with others. Occupations: teacher, mental health professional.

· Intrapersonal: The ability to understand oneself. Occupations: theologian, psychologist.

· Naturalist: The ability to observe patterns in nature and understand natural and human-made systems. Occupations: farmer, botanist, ecologist, landscaper.

· Existentialist: The ability to grapple with the big questions of human existence, such as the meaning of life and death, with special sensitivity to issues of spirituality. Gardner has not identified an occupation for existential intelligence, but one career path would likely be philosopher.

Thinking: the mental process of manipulating information mentally by forming concept, solving problems, making decision, and reflecting critically or creatively.

A fundamental of thinking is the notion of concept, when mentally you divided everything in categories, groups, events and characteristics. This help us to make sense of information.

Prototype model A: they compare the item with the most typical item(s).

Problem solving: the mental process of finding an appropriate way to attain a goal when the goal is not readily available, Problem solving entails following several steps and overcoming mental obstacles.

1. Find and frame problems: recognizing a problem is the first step toward a solution.

2. Develop good problem-solving strategies: once we find a problem and clearly define it , we need to develop strategies for solving it, subgoals, algorithms, and heuristics.

Subgoals intermediate goals or intermediate problems that put us in a better position for reaching a final goal or solution.

Algorithms Strategies- including formulas, instructions, and the testing of all possible solutions- that guarantee a solution to a problem.

Algorithms are strategies that guarantee a solution to a problem.

Heuristics shortcut strategies or guidelines that suggest a solution to a problem but do not guarantee an answer.

3. Evaluate solutions: once we think we have solved a problem, we will not know how effective our solution is until we find out if it works.

4. Rethink and Redefine problems and solutions over time: rethink and redefine problems continually, good problems solvers tend to be more motivated that the average person to improve on their past performances.

Reasoning

Reasoning: the mental activity of transforming information to reach conclusions, reasoning is involved in problem solving and decision making.

Inductive reasoning: reasoning from specific observations to make generalizations.

Deductive reasoning : reasoning from a general case that is known to be true to a specific instance.

Decision Making

Decision making: the mental activity of evaluating alternatives and choosing among them.