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Friday, April 29

  1. page Group - Chapter 11 - Gender, Sex, and Sexuality edited ... Gender Stereotypes - Overly general beliefs and expectations about what women and men are like…
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    Gender Stereotypes - Overly general beliefs and expectations about what women and men are like.
    Major Theoretical Approaches to Gender and Gender Development
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    Section 3 The Psychology of Gender Differences
    In this section we will review the research of gender differences in three main areas: cognitive ability, aggression, and sexuality. As we do, keep in mind that because gender cannon be manipulated, research comparing men and women is by definition correlation, so that casual claims are not justified.
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  5. page Group - Chapter 11 - Gender, Sex, and Sexuality edited ... In puberty, people develop secondary sex characteristics. These are traits that differ between…
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    In puberty, people develop secondary sex characteristics. These are traits that differ between the two sexes but are not part of the reproductive system, such as breasts in females and facial hair in males.
    Gender
    Gender isis the social
    Gender Identity is an individuals multifaceted sense of belonging to the male or female sex.
    Instrumentality is the term psychologists use to describe more masculine traits, while expressiveness is more feminine traits.
    ...
    o although frequency of sexual behavior may decline with age, sexuality remains a significant part of human identity and relationships throughout life
    o throughout the life span sexual activities remain a source of pleasure and an avenue for the experience of intimacy

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  6. page Group - Chapter 11 - Gender, Sex, and Sexuality edited ... AND SEXUALITY - DRAFT Section 1 Defining Sex and Gender Sex and its Biological Compone…
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    AND SEXUALITY - DRAFT
    Section 1 Defining Sex and Gender
    Sex and its Biological Components
    Sex refers to the properties of a person that determine his or her classification as male or female.
    Sex Chromosomes found in humans are the pair of genes that differ between the sexes and determines a persons sex as male or female.
    Gonads, a part of the endocrine system, are glands that produce sex hormones and generate the ova (egg) in females and sperm in males. They are called gametes.
    Male and Females have 23 pairs of chromosomes. Women have all XX pairs of chromosomes, Men have one pair of XY chromosomes.
    In puberty, people develop secondary sex characteristics. These are traits that differ between the two sexes but are not part of the reproductive system, such as breasts in females and facial hair in males.
    Gender
    Gender is the social and psychological aspect of being male or female. Gender goes beyond biological sex to include a persons understanding of the meaning of his or her own life of being male or female.
    Gender Identity is an individuals multifaceted sense of belonging to the male or female sex.
    Instrumentality is the term psychologists use to describe more masculine traits, while expressiveness is more feminine traits.
    Androgynous is having attributes that are typically associated with both genders.
    Disorders of Sexual Development
    DSD are congenital conditions in which the development of chromosomal, gonadal, or anatomical sex is atypical. This disorder was formerly known as intersex conditions or hermaphroditism.
    When Genetic Sex and Gender Conflict: Transgender Experience
    Transgender is experiencing ones psychological gender as different from ones physical sex, as is the case of biological males who identify as female and biological females who identify as male.
    Gender Identity Disorder is a strong, persistent cross sex identification and a continuing discomfort with, or sense of inappropriateness of, ones assigned sex.

    Section 2 Theories of Gender Development
    Sexual selection
    Sexual selection, according to Darwins theory of evolution, the differentiation between the male and female members of a species because of the difference between the two in competition and choice.
    Competition occurs among members of the same sex as they vie for the opportunity to mate with members of the opposite sex.
    Choice is the when the opposite sex selects the one with which they will mate.
    Social Cognitive Approaches - Social cognitive theories of gender development focus on how children learn about gender and how they come to occupy a particulate identity.
    Social Role Theory - to understand gender, we must recognize the larger social and cultural institutions surrounding the psychological phenomenon of gender identity.
    Gender Roles - Expectations for how females and males should think, act and feel.
    Gender Stereotypes - Overly general beliefs and expectations about what women and men are like.
    Major Theoretical Approaches to Gender and Gender Development
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    Section 3 The Psychology of Gender Differences
    In this section we will review the research of gender differences in three main areas: cognitive ability, aggression, and sexuality. As we do, keep in mind that because gender cannon be manipulated, research comparing men and women is by definition correlation, so that casual claims are not justified.
    ...
    One reason they believe heterosexual couples will stay together is because they have children and they are more likely to have children.
    Section 5 Sexual Behaviors and Practices
    Sexual Behaviors
    · What is sex?
    o vaginal intercourse?
    o anal sex?
    o oral sex?
    o sexting?
    o activities that are involved in reproduction and fertilization?
    o arousal and sexual response that occur when the behavior is performed?
    o behaviors that are specific to each individual and that are pleasurable in a particular way – one that is usually intimate and personal?
    · many individuals under age 20 do not view oral sex as sex, they believe that it is a safe alternative to intercourse; oral sex exposes individuals to the risk of contracting sexually transmitted infections
    Sexual Practices
    · Alfred Kinsey considered the father of sexology; a pioneer who brought scientific attention to sexual behavior
    · When people in the United States engage in sexual behavior, what do they do, and how often?
    · The Kinsey Reports:
    o frequency of bisexuality = men (12%) and women (7%)
    o 50% of married men had been sexually unfaithful
    o his work was limed by the lack of representative samples
    · Robert Michael and his colleges (1994) interviewed 3,500 randomly selected people from 18-50 years of age
    o 17% of men and 3% of women said they had sex with at least 21 partners
    o marriage and monogamy rule sexual behavior
    § married couples reported having sex most often and were the most likely to have orgasms when they did
    § nearly 75% of the married men and 85% of the married women indicated that they had never been unfaithful
    · ABC news poll (2004)
    o individuals in committed relationships had more sex than singles, and the vast majority reported themselves as sexually faithful
    · Centers for Disease Control conducted a study of sexual behaviors in the U.S. (2002)
    o age 15-44: 10% men and 8% women had never had sex (including vaginal intercourse, oral sex, and anal sex)
    o age 25-44: 97% had vaginal intercourse; 90% had oral sex; 40% men and 35% women had anal sex
    · 3,00 Swedes frequency of different sexual behaviors in the previous month (vaginal intercourse, masturbation, oral sex, and anal sex)
    o vaginal intercourse: men (5 times), women (5 times)
    o masturbation: men (4.5), women (2)
    o oral sex: men (2), women (2)
    o anal sex: men (1), women (1)
    · gay men engage in mutual masturbation, oral sex, and anal sex
    · lesbian women engage in genital-to-genital contact (body rubbing), mutual fondling and masturbation, penetration with the hands or other objects, and oral sex
    The Human Sexual Response Pattern
    · William Maters and Virginia Johnson (1966) carefully observed and measured the physiological responses of 382 female and 312 male volunteers as they masturbated or had vaginal intercourse
    · human sexual response pattern = Masters Johnson’s model of human sexual response, consisting of four phases – excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution
    1. Excitement Phase
    § begins the process of erotic excitement
    § last from several minutes to several hours (depending on the nature of the sex play involved)
    § engorgements of blood vessels, increased blood flow in genital area, and muscle tension
    § lubrication of the vagina and partial erection of the penis
    2. Plateau Phase
    § continuation and heightening of the arousal begun in the excitement phase
    § increase in breathing, pulse rate, and blood pressure that occurred during excitement phase become more intense
    § penile erection and vaginal lubrication are more complete, and orgasm is closer
    3. Orgasm
    § orgasm lasts for 3 to 15 seconds
    § involves an explosive discharge of neuromuscular tension and an intensely pleasurable feeling
    § release of the neurotransmitter oxytocin, which plays a role in social bonding
    4. Resolution Phase
    § blood vessels return to their normal state
    § females may be stimulated to orgasm again without delay
    § males enter a refractory period during which they cannot have another orgasm)
    · Helen Singer Kaplan (1974) talked with individuals in her clinical practice about theur sexual experiences
    o added a key initial stage: desire
    § sexual desire was sometimes lacking in her clients
    § highlighted the very important role of motivation in sexual activities
    § without the desire to have sex, the stages described by Masters and Johnson may never get started
    Cognition and Other Factors in Sexual Behaviors
    · Sexual behavior is influenced by a variety of factors, ranging from sensation and perception to the ways we think about sexuality
    · finding someone attractive may involve seeing the person, getting to know him or her, and feeling emotionally attached
    · thoughts play an important role in our sexuality
    o we might be sexually attracted to someone but understand that we must inhibit our sexual urges until the relationship has time to develop
    o we have the cognitive resources to generate sexual images (to become sexually aroused just by thinking about something erotic)
    · sexuality is influenced by sexual scripts, patterns of expectancies for how people should behave sexually
    · for men, sex may center more on what’s going on in the genitals, with orgasm being a crucial aspect
    · for men sex may be more an expression of intimacy, with orgasm an optional feature
    · cognitive interpretation of sexual activity also involves out perceptions of the individual with whom we having sex, and his or her perceptions of us
    o Is this sexual encounter a symbol of a more enduring relationship or simply a hook-up?
    The Influence of Culture
    · John Messenger (1971) analyzed the people living on the small island of Inis Beag off the coast of Ireland
    o they knew nothing of tongue kissing or hand stimulation of the penis, and detested nudity
    o premarital sex was out the question
    o men avoided most sexual experiences because they believed that sexual intercourse reduced their energy level and was bad for the health
    o intercourse occurred only at night, taking place as quickly as possible; female orgasm was rare in this culture
    · Donald Marshall (1971) conducted research on the Mangain culture in the South Pacific
    o young boys were taught about masturbation and were encouraged to engage in it as much as they liked
    o at age 13, the boys underwent a ritual initiating them into sexual manhood
    § their elders instructed them about sexual strategies, including how to aid their female partner in having orgasms
    § 2 weeks later, the boy had intercourse with an experienced woman who helped him hold back from ejaculation until she experienced orgasm with him
    § Mangaians had sex pretty much every day; women reported a high frequency of orgasm
    · Americans fall somewhere in the middle of a continuum going from repressive to liberal
    · culture influences not only attitudes about sexual behavior but also ideas about sexual orientation
    Sex Education
    · Most people concerned with sex education share two simple and relatively uncontroversial goals: to encourage the very young to delay sexual activity and to reduce teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections
    · abstinence-only approach
    o emphasize that any sexual behavior outside of marriage is harmful to individuals of any age
    o instructors can present contraceptives and condoms only in terms of their failure rates
    o promotes the notion that abstinence is the only effective way to avoid pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections
    · comprehensive sex education (considered the better approach)
    o providing students with comprehensive knowledge about sexual behavior, birth control and the use of condoms in protecting against sexually transmitted infections, while encouraging them to delay sexual activity and practice abstinence
    · The U.S. has one of the highest rates of adolescent pregnancy and childbearing in the developed world, with as many as 1/3 of young women under the of 20 becoming pregnant
    · U.S. adolescent pregnancy rates are nearly twice those of Canada and Great Britain and at least 4x the rates in France, Sweden, Germany, and Japan.
    o Compared to these other nations, the Unites States has less comprehensive sex education and less availability and use of condoms

    Section 6 Sexual Variations and Disorders
    Fetishes
    · fetish = an object or activity that arouses sexual interest and desire
    o include erotic materials (such as pornographic images and films), clothing, and other physical objects
    · sadomasochism = one person (the sadistic partner) gains sexual pleasure from dominating another person (the masochist), who in turn enjoys being dominated
    · unusual sexual practices are typically considered harmless variations as long as these three principles are not violated:
    1. the individuals are consenting adults
    2. they do not experience personal distress
    3. they are not putting themselves in danger of physical harm or death as a result of their activities
    Paraphilias
    · paraphilias = sexual disorders that feature recurrent sexually arousing fantasies, urges, or behaviors involving (1) nonhuman objects; (2) the suffering or humiliation of oneself or one’s partner; or (3) children or other nonconsenting persons
    · a paraphilia is considered to require treatment if the person experiencing it feels distress or impairment in social or occupational life domains; men more likely to suffer from this than women
    · the cause and significance of paraphilias is unknown
    · Types of Paraphilias
    o exhibition = exposing one’s genitals to a stranger
    o fetishism = using nonliving objects for sexual pleasure
    o fortteurism = touching and rubbing against a person who has not given consent – for instance, in a crowded subway train
    o pedophilia = sexual activity with a prepubescent child
    o sexual masochism = the act of being humiliated, beaten, bound, or otherwise made to suffer
    o sexual sadism = acts in which the individual derives sexual excitement form the psychological or physical suffering of the victim
    o transvestic fetishism = cross-dressing by a male in women’s clothing
    o voyeurism = observing unsuspecting individuals – usually strangers who are naked, in the process of disrobing, or engaged in sexual activity
    Pedophilia
    · pedophilia = a paraphlia in which an adult or an older adolescent sexually fantasizes about or engages in sexual behavior with individuals who have not reached puberty
    · the causes of this disorder are not well understood
    · associated with low self-esteem, poor social skills, low IQ, and a history of head injuries (casuing unconsciousness) in childhood
    · pattern of cognitive distortions, including minimizing the harm of pedophilic activities, believeing that sexual impulses are uncontrollable, and thinking that sexual relationships with children are consensual
    · castration (either surgically through removal of the testes, or chemically, though drugs that reduce testosterone) has been used to treat sex offenders who victimize children
    o some critics have suggested that castration is used primarily to punish, not to treat, and as such is unethical
    · Michael Seto (2009), an expert on the disorder, focuses on prevention
    o advocates educating children to distinguish appropriate and inappropriate touch and empowering them to share their feelings with a trusted adult if someone is making them uncomfortable
    Disorders of Sexual Desire and Sexual Response
    · up to ¼ of men and nearly ½ of women report sometimes being troubled with a general lack of interest in sex
    o this can stem from low levels of androgen, stress, anxiety and depression, physical illnesses, and various drugs used to treat psychological and physical conditions
    o treatments include drug therapies, psychological therapies, and relationship counseling
    · erectile dysfunction = the failure of the penis to become erect; caused by a combination of psychological and physical factors; more common with age; one treatment is Viagra
    · premature ejaculation = the experience of orgasm before the person wishes it; most common sexual complaint among men under the age of 40; caused by psychological, physical, and relationship factors; treated with drugs or therapy
    · for women, dysfunction in arousal is explained by problems in the autonomic nervous system that disrupt the engorgement of the labia and lubrication of the vagina
    o disorders of sexual orgasm in women involve delayed or absent orgasm during sexual activity
    · occasional occurrence of these are common and normal
    · when these problems cause distress for the individual or difficulties in important relationships that they are considered disorders in need of treatment
    Variations, Disorders, and the Meaning of Normality
    · Are variations in sexual behavior a problem that require professional help or are do they represent harmless differences that simply reflect human diversity?
    o If you feel concern about your own sexual behaviors or experiences, seeking the advice of counselor or therapist is a great way to get clarity about the issues.

    Section 7 Sexuality and Health and Wellness
    Sexual Behavior and Physical Health
    · sexually transmitted infection (STI) = an infection that is contracted primarily through sexual activity – vaginal intercourse as well as oral and anal sex
    o affect about 1 of every 6 adults in the United States
    Types and Causes of Sexually Transmitted Infections
    · STIs are bacterial (such as gonorrhea and syphilis) or viral (such as genital herpes and HIV)
    · acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) = a sexually transmitted infection, caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), that destroys the body’s immune system
    o the treatment know as highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) can involve taking between 6 and 22 pills each day
    o first one-pill-per-day treatment for HIV was FDA approved in 2006
    o estimated that as many as ½ of individuals who are HIV positive are not in treatment and that ¼ of individuals who are HIV positive do not know that they are
    Practicing Safe Sex
    · the only 100% way to prevent contracting an STI is abstinence from sex, which most individuals do not view as an option
    · sensual activities such as kissing, French kissing, cuddling, massage, and mutual masturbation (that does not involve the exchange of bodily fluids) involve no risk of an STI
    · condoms are a key tool in efforts to protect oneself from STIs
    o the wisest course of action is always to protect yourself by using a latex condom
    o latex condoms help to prevent the transmission of many STIs
    o most effective in preventing gonorrhea, syphilis, Chlamydia, and HIV
    o significantly reduces the risk that males will transmit to their female partners the human papilloma virus (HPV), which can cause cervical cancer
    o although condoms are less effective against the spread of herpes than against other STIs, the consistent use of condoms significantly reduces the risk of herpes infection for both men and women
    Sexual Behavior and Psychological Well-Being
    · Lynne and Cooper and her colleagues (Cooper, Shapiro, and Powers, 1998) examined the reasons adolescents and young adults gave for having sex
    o to connect intimately with someone
    o to enhance their own self-esteem
    o to gain a partner’s peers’ approval
    o to avoid feeling distressed or lonely
    o found that engaging in sex as a form of intimacy with another person was related to having fewer sex partners overall and to practicing less risky sex
    o individuals who had sex to cope with negative feelings were less likely to have stable long-term relationships and tended to engage in more unsafe sex
    o having sex in order to be close to another person is related to enhanced well-being, but engaging in sex to avoid bad feelings is linking with decreases in well-being
    · Swedish study (Brody and Costa, 2009)
    o frequency of vaginal intercourse was strongly related to life satisfaction for men and women
    o although frequency of sexual behavior may decline with age, sexuality remains a significant part of human identity and relationships throughout life
    o throughout the life span sexual activities remain a source of pleasure and an avenue for the experience of intimacy

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Thursday, April 28

  1. page Group - Chapter 12 - Personality edited ... The Rorschach inkblot test, developed by the psychiatrist Hermann Rorschach, is a famous proje…
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    The Rorschach inkblot test, developed by the psychiatrist Hermann Rorschach, is a famous projective test that uses an individual's perception of inkblots to determine his or her personality. The Rorschach is not commonly used in personality research.
    The Thematic Apperception Test (TAT), created by Henry Murray and Christiana Morgan, is a projective test that is designed to elicit stories that reveal something about an individual's personality. The TAT test taker is asked to tell a story about each of the pictures, including events leading up to the situation described, the characters' thoughts and feelings, and the way the situation turns out.
    Personality and Health and Wellness
    Personality affects many behaviors that impact physical health and psychological wellness.
    Conscientiousness
    A diversity of studies show that conscientious people tend to do all the things that they are told are good for their health, such as getting regular exercise, avoiding drinking and smoking, wearing seatbelts, and checking smoke detectors.
    Personal Control
    Feeling in control can reduce stress during difficult times and can lead to the development of problem-solving tactic to deal with adversity.
    Self-efficacy
    Research shows that self-efficacy is related to success in a large diversity of positive life changes, including achieving weight loss, exercising regularly, quitting smoking, ending substance abuse, and practicing safe sex.
    {martin_seligman.jpg}
    Optimism
    Martin Seligman's theory and research view optimism as a matter of how a person explains the causes of bad events. Optimists explain the causes of bad events as external, unstable, and specific, but pessimists explain them as internal, stable, and global.
    The Type A and Type B Behavior Pattern
    The Type A behavior pattern is a cluster of characteristics, such as being excessively competitive, hard-driven, impatient, and aggressive. These characteristics are related to the incidence of heart disease.
    The Type B behavior pattern is a cluster of characteristics, such as being relaxed and easygoing. These characteristics are related to good health.
    Personality and Psychological Well-Being
    The subjective well-being is a person's assessment of his or her level of positive affect and negative affect, and an evaluation of his or her life in general. This definition offers a clue as to why the traits of neuroticism and extraversion are so powerfully related to psychological state. Neuroticism is the tendency to worry, to feel distressed, and to experience negative emotion. Neurotic individuals experience more negative mood than others, and their moods are more changeable.
    Questions
    What are the three structures of personality?
    A: The id, the ego, and the superego
    What are the basic factors of personality?
    A: Extraversion, agreeableness, neuroticism, conscientiousness and openness
    An objective test or inventory which directly asks people whether specific items describe their personality traits
    A: Self-Report Test
    The Rorschach inkblot test is an example of...
    A: A projective test
    The Behavioral Inhibition System is susceptible to...
    A: Environmental punishments

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  2. page Group - Chapter 12 - Personality edited ... The BAS is susceptible to rewards in the environment, inclines one to feelings of positive emo…
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    The BAS is susceptible to rewards in the environment, inclines one to feelings of positive emotion, and motivates the trait of extraversion.
    The BIS is susceptible to punishments and is involved in avoidance learning. It influences the individual to feelings of fear and underlies the trait of neuroticism. Psychologists often measure the BAS and BIS by using questionnaires that evaluate a person's attention to rewarding or punishing results.
    {neurotransmitters.jpg} ThePersonality and Behavioral Genetics and the Role of Neurotransmitters
    Neurotransmitters have been concerned in personality. Neuroticism is particularly linked to a certain serotonin transporter gene and to the binding of serotonin in the thalamus. Individuals who have less circulating serotonin are prone to negative mood.
    Personality and Behavioral Genetics

    Behavioral genetics is the study of the inherited underpinnings of behavioral characteristics.
    Neurotransmitters have been concerned in personality. Neuroticism is particularly linked to a certain serotonin transporter gene and to the binding of serotonin in the thalamus. Individuals who have less circulating serotonin are prone to negative mood.
    Personality Assessment
    Psychologists use several methods to evaluate personality. They assess personality for different reasons—from clinical evaluation to career counseling and job selection. {self_report.jpg}
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